初中语法冠词和数词用法,一篇全掌握!

编辑: 逍遥路 关键词: 初中英语 来源: 高中学习网


一、冠词的用法  冠词是虚词,放在名词之前,用来说明名词指的人或事物。冠词有两种。  A(an)叫不定冠词,the叫定冠词。A用在辅音之前,an用在元音之前。  1. 不定冠词的用法  (1)a和an均用在单数名词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如:  John is a student.  Mary is an English teacher.  (2)指某一类人或事物中的任何一个。例如:  A steel worker makes steel.  Pass me an apple, please.  (3)指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或和物。例如:  A student wants to see you.  A girl is waiting for you outside.  (4)表示“每一”的意思,相当于every。例如:  Take the medicine three times a day.  They go to see their parents once a week.  2.定冠词用法  (1)特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。例如:  The book on the desk is an English dictionary.  Beijing is the capital of China.  (2)指说话人和听话人都熟悉的人或事物。例如:  Open the door, please.  Jack is in the library.  (3)上文提到过的人或事物。例如:  Yesterday John’s father bought him a new bike. The bike cost him 200 yuan.  (4)表示世界上独一无二的事物。例如:  The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.  (5)用在序数词和形容词最高级之前。例如:  Shanghai is the biggest city in China.  January is the first month of the year.  (6)用在某些形容词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如:  The nurse is kind to the sick.  We should take good care of the old.  (7)用在某些专有名词之前和某些习惯用语中。例如:  the Great Wall, the Summer palace, in the morning, in the open air等。  (8)用在姓氏复数之前,表示“某某一家人”,“某某夫妇”。例如:  the Browns, the whites等。  3.不用冠词的情况  (1)某些专有名词,抽象名词和物质名词前一般不用冠词。例如:  China, Canada, Japanese, glass, water, love等。  (2)名词前已有作定语用的this, that, my, your, whose, some, any, no, each, every等代词时,不用冠词。例如:  That is my cap.  I have some questions.  Go down this street.  (3)复数名词表示一类人或事物时,不用冠词。  They are workers.  We are students.  (4)称呼语前不用冠词,表示头衔和职务的名词前也不加冠词。例如:  I don’t feel well today, Mother.  Bush was made president of the U.S.  (5)三餐饭的名称前,球类活动,学科和节目名词前,常不用冠词。例如:  I have lunch at home.  He often plays football after class.  We have English and maths every day.  (6)在某些固定词组里,名词之前常不用冠词。例如:  By air, at night, at home, go to bed, go to school, on foot, from morning till night 等。  二、数词的用法  数词分基数词和序数词。基数词表示数目,序数词表示顺序。  1.基数词的用法  (1)基数词在句中主要用作主语、宾语、定语、表语、同位语,例如:  Thirty of them are Party members.(主语)  —— How many would you like?  —— Three ,please.(作宾语)  The nine boys are from Tianjing.(定语)  Six plus four is ten.(表语)  We four will go with you.(同位语)  (2)表示一个具体数字时,hundred, thousand, million一律不用复数;在表示一个不确定数字时则用复数。例如:  Our country has a population of 1,300 million people.  There are three thousand students in our school.  After the war, thousands of people became homeless.  Maize is the most important food crop for millions of people in the world.  They arrived in twos and threes.  (3)表示“……十”的数词的复数形式可用来表示人的岁数或年代,例如:  He is in his early thirties.  He died still in his forties.  This took place in 1930s.  (4)表示时刻用基数词。例如:  We get up at six.  The workers begin work at eight.  表示“几点过几分”,用介词past,但须在半小时以内。例如:  ten past ten,  a quarter past nine,  half past twelve  表示“几点差几分”用介词to, 但分数须在半小时以上。例如:  twenty to nine,  five to eight,  a quarter to ten  表示“几点几分”还可直接用基数词。例如:  seven fifteen,  eleven thirty,  nine twenty  2.序数词的用法  (1)序数词主要用作定语,前面要加定冠词,例如:  The first truck is carrying a foot baskets.  John lives on the fifteenth floor.  (2)序数词有时前面可加不定冠词来表示“再一”,“又一”这样的意思,例如:  We'll have to do it a second time.  Shall I ask him a third time?  When I sat down,a fourth man rose to speak.  (3)由几个序数词和基数词在拼写时不对应,很容易写错,应特别注意。它们是:one---first, two---second, three---third, five---fifth, eight---eighth, nine---ninth, twelve---twelfth。  (4)表示年,月,日时, 年用基数词表示,日用序数词表示。例如:  1949年十月一日读作: October (the) first, nineteen sixty  2004年九月十日读作:September (the) tenth, two thousand and four  (5)表示分数时,分子用基数词表示,分母用序数词表示。分子大于1时,分母加-s。例如:  three fourths,  one second,  two fifths  (6)序数词有时用缩写形式:  first→1st second→2nd  third→3rd fourth→4th  twenty-second→22nd
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